Xenophon described the odd behaviour of Greek soldiers after having consumed honey in a village surrounded by Rhododendron ponticum during the march of the Ten Thousand in 401 BCE. In some species, the undersides of the leaves are covered with scales (lepidote) or hairs (indumentum). Jasper Fforde a British author, also uses rhododendron as a motif throughout many of his published books. It covers an area of 56,019 km² (21,629 mi²), although the border with China is still disputed. hpgk notes hp current gk himachal pradesh himachal news today himachal govt job 2020 hppsc shimla hp general studies hp current affairs 2020 hp gk hp gk in hindi ... state flower--- pink rhododendron. On 25th January, 1971, Himachal Pradesh … (2005) with RPB2,[2] there began an ongoing realignment of species and groups within the genus, based on evolutionary relationships. Information+photos of hybrids and species. State Flower: Pink Rhododendron. Kasol is famous by the nickname of ‘Mini Israel’ perhaps because of its maximum tourists being that of Israeli origin and so most of the shops and inns to bear hoarding in the Hebrew language. Ans: Kullu Dusshera; Halda (New Year welcome) The next major attempt at classification was by Sleumer who from 1934 began incorporating the Balfourian series into the older hierarchical structure of subgenera and sections, according to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, culminating in 1949 with his "Ein System der Gattung Rhododendron L.",[28] and subsequent refinements. Historical Importance. Rhododendron is a genus of shrubs and small to (rarely) large trees, the smallest species growing to 10–100 cm (4–40 in) tall, and the largest, R. protistum var. HP Secretariat, Shimla +91 177 2622204 State Flower: Pink Rhododendron; Benefits of practicing Himachal Pradesh GK Quiz. SHIMLA: Growing at an altitude of 1,800 metres-2,800 metres above sea level, the buras/buransh trees, Rhododendron, have started decorating the city with its flowers in some of the … You will pass through red and pink rhododendron trees as you hike up, the state flower of Himachal Pradesh. These scales, unique to subgenus Rhododendron, are modified hairs consisting of a polygonal scale attached by a stalk. The flower symbol of Himachal Pradesh is Pink Rhododendron. This is the official website of Department of Tourism & Civil Aviation, Government of Himachal Pradesh. This majestic bird is the state bird of Himachal Pradesh. 15. [70][71] Animal studies and in vitro research has identified possible anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities which may be due to the antioxidant effects of flavonoids or other phenolic compounds and saponins the plant contains. Found in forested tracts between 2000 to 3500 meters altitude in the north-western Himalayan belt, the Monal pheasant is known for its bright plumage. Kasol is famous by the nickname of ‘Mini Israel’ perhaps … Read Also: Mountain Peaks of Himachal Pradesh have found that the root of the plant is able to reduce the activity of NF-κB in rats. The state also has famous Pong Dam Lake, which is visited by lakhs of migratory birds from as far as Siberia every winter. These included the position of the inflorescence buds (terminal or lateral), whether lepidote or elepidote, deciduousness of leaves, and whether new foliage was derived from axils from previous year's shoots or the lowest scaly leaves (Table 2.). Shimla: Snow Leopard would be the new State Animal, Western Tragopan (Jujurana) (Tragopan melanocephalus) to be State Bird and Pink Rhododendron (Rhododendron campanulatum) to be the State Flower of Himachal Pradesh. Decisions to designate these were taken in the 3rd State Wild Life Board Meeting. The site is informative, and has links to other State Government Organizations also. This bear is a sub-specie of the Asiatic black bear with a distinctive necklace of white fur across its chest. [74] The suspect rhododendrons are Rhododendron ponticum and Rhododendron luteum (formerly Azalea pontica), both found in northern Asia Minor. Amongst the Zomi tribes in India and Myanmar, "Rhododendrons" called "Ngeisok" is used in a poetic manner to signify a lady. The 65% of people in Himachal Pradesh are attached to the agricultural sector. Spread over 307 square kilometers, this wetland began to attract winter migratory birds from as far as the Arctic region and Siberia soon after the Pong Dam was built on River Beas in 1975. [citation needed], The rhododendron is the national flower of Nepal, where the flower is considered edible and enjoyed for its sour taste. Its scientific name is Rhododendron campanulatum. In the language of flowers, the Rhododendron symbolizes danger and to beware. Friday April 01, 2011 10:04:55 AM, Vishal Gulati, IANS. Other significant areas of diversity are in the mountains of Korea, Japan and Taiwan. and R. maximum). Both species and hybrid rhododendrons (including azaleas) are used extensively as ornamental plants in landscaping in many parts of the world, including both temperate and subtemperate regions. For those of you trying to understand what is Rhododendron and how does it make trekking relaxing – it is the national flower of Nepal and state flower of Himachal Pradesh. 17. [49], Rhododendron bud blast, a fungal condition that causes buds to turn brown and dry, and not open, is caused by the fungus Pycnostysanus azaleae, which may be brought to the plant by the rhododendron leafhopper, Graphocephala fennahi.[50](p562). Rhododendron campanulatum forms a very prominent shrub layer along timber line (3300 to 3600 m asl). Kullu is linked to the national capital, New Delhi (570 km), Chandigarh (267 km), Pathankot (285 km) and Shimla (270 km) as well as by tourist luxury buses of Himachal Pradesh … R. ponticum is difficult to eradicate, as its roots can make new shoots. On 25th January 1971, Himachal Pradesh was made a full-fledged State. Most species have brightly colored flowers which bloom from late winter through to early summer.[6]. State Animal - SNOW LEOPARD . Popularly known as the Devbhumi – “Land of the Gods”, Himachal Pradesh is a beautiful hill state in India, nestles in the north-west region of western Himalayas.The state is landlocked with the Tibetan plateau to the east, Jammu and Kashmir to the north, and Punjab to the west. Rhododendron borers and various weevils are major pests of rhododendrons, and many caterpillars will preferentially devour them. [2][11][30] These consist of four large and four small subgenera. While Sleumer's work was widely accepted, many in the United States and the United Kingdom continued to use the simpler Balfourian system of the Edinburgh group. It appears … The state, Himachal Pradesh situated in the middle Himalayans or Himachal Himalayans. )[41], Subsequent research has supported the revision by Goetsch, although has largely concentrated on further defining the phylogeny within the subdivisions. HIMACHAL PRADESH State Flower: Bell Rhododendron Botanical Name: ... Family: Ericaceae Etymology: ‘Rhododendron ... pink-tinged white or pink to rosy purple. Calyx is 5-lobed. Large-scale commercial growing often selects for different characteristics than hobbyist growers might want, such as resistance to root rot when overwatered, ability to be forced into budding early, ease of rooting or other propagation, and saleability. ", "Rescuing the Ghent and Rustica Flore Pleno Azaleas", "Soil information for planting rhododendrons", "Integrating ethnobiological knowledge into biodiversity conservation in the Eastern Himalayas", "Anti-inflammatory activity of flowers of, "Rhododendron poison – truth behind the science of Sherlock Holmes", "Language of Flowers – Flower Meanings and Flower Sentiments", "Shades of Grey – An Interview with Jasper Fforde about Shades of Grey", "Conservation of Rhododendron Species and their historic Gardens", "Historical Survey of Rhododendron Collecting With Emphasis on its Close Associations with Horticulture", "The Discovery of the Malaysian Rhododendrons", "Evolution, Adaptive Radiation and Vireya Rhododendrons - Part I", "Evolution, Adaptive Radiation and Vireya Rhododendrons – Part II", Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library, History of Rhododendron Discovery & Culture, Description of damage caused by Rhododendrons in the UK. Meanwhile, other botanists such as Salisbury (1796)[19] and Tate (1831)[20] began to question the distinction between Azalea and Rhododendron, and finally in 1836, Azalea was incorporated into Rhododendron[21] and the genus divided into eight sections. The remaining small subgenus Therorhodion with its two species was left intact. It is the State Flower of Himachal Pradesh. Himachal Pradesh has an abundant amount of Tibetans having their home, and this is the reason that Buddhism is the next religion that is followed strongly by Hinduism. 2. Later Gao et al. In the wild the pheasant has been sighted in the Beas, Satluj and Ravi river catchment areas. [33], A number of closely related genera had been included together with Rhododendron in a former tribe, Rhodoreae. For any query regarding this website, contact Sh.Surjeet Kumar,Nodal Officer Ph:0177-2625924. [1][14] He listed five species under Rhododendron (Rhododendron ferrugineum (type species), R. dauricum, R. hirsutum, R. chamaecistus (now Rhodothamnus chamaecistus (L.) Rchb.) 28, SDA Complex, Kasumpti, Shimla-171009. It is a very beautiful flower with pink coloured petals. Himachal Pradesh literally means Snow-laden Region and is one of the most beautiful and diverse states in India. UNESCO World Heritage site Great Himalayan National Park and Pin Valley National parks are two famous national parks, besides, 30 wildlife sanctuaries in Himachal Pradesh. People have been known to become ill from eating honey made by bees feeding on rhododendron and azalea flowers. HIMACHAL PRADESH State Flower: Bell Rhododendron Botanical Name: ... Family: Ericaceae Etymology: ‘Rhododendron ... pink-tinged white or pink to rosy purple. Agriculture provides direct employment to over 65% of the state’s working population. Similarly the single species in monotypic subgenus Mumeazalea (Rhododendron semibarbatum) was placed in the new section Tsutsusi, subgenus Azaleastrum. After Independence, 30 princely states of the area were united and Himachal Pradesh was formed on 15th April, 1948. Terminology from the Sleumer (1949) system is frequently found in older literature, with five subgenera and is as follows; In the later traditional classification, attributed to Chamberlain (1996), and as used by horticulturalists and the American Rhododendron Society,[44] Rhododendron has eight subgenera based on morphology, namely the presence of scales (lepidote), deciduousness of leaves, and the floral and vegetative branching patterns, after Sleumer (1980). himachal day --- 15 april 1948. full statehood day --- 25 january 1971. hp high court --25 jan. 1971 (hq. Himachal Pradesh became a part C state on 26th January 1950 with the implementation of the Constitution of India. India, officially the Republic of India is a country in South Asia. Decisions to designate these were taken in the 3rd State Wild Life Board Meeting. According to the reports of International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), Pink Rhododendron comes under the endangered species of flower. Pompey's soldiers reportedly suffered lethal casualties following the consumption of honey made from Rhododendron deliberately left behind by Pontic forces in 67 BCE during the Third Mithridatic War. Once you reach Rashol you will see old wooden houses and a beautiful temple in the middle … State Flower: Pink Rhododendron; Benefits of practicing Himachal Pradesh GK Quiz. 1 month ago. Extensive information on rhododendron species: the history of their discovery, botanical details, toxicity, classification, cultural conditions, care for common problems, and suggestions for companion plants by Steve Henning. For a comparison of the Sleumer and Chamberlain systems, see Goetsch et al. State flower of Himachal Pradesh is Pink Rhododendron. [30][31] In 1986 Philipson & Philipson raised two sections of subgenus Aleastrum (Mumeazalea, Candidastrum) to subgenera, while reducing genus Therorhodion to a subgenus of Rhododendron. Shimla: The hills have turned a flaming red and pink as spring is in the air. Shimla-The Himachal Pradesh Government has collected over Rs. Rhododendron arboreum (lali guransh) is the national flower of Nepal. Its scientific name is Rhododendron campanulatum. It also has a great tourism value because a pleasant weather is continuing here throughout the year. From dry scrub vegetation with broad leaved trees spread out over the lower Shivalik mountains, to deep coniferous and oak forests of the mid hills and the alpine pasture lands found above the treeline, the flora of Himachal is as diverse as the land. Himachal Chief Minister said that Snow Leopard, … It replaced Rhododendrum arboretum. Aspirants can get a glance at the article and can know the state traditions and customs. Geographically, Himachal Pradesh can be divided into three distinct regions, the Shivalik or outer Himalayas, middle Himalayas or the inner Himalayas, and greater Himalayas or the alpine zone. This division was based on a number of what were thought to be key morphological characteristics. The aromatic musk scent glands found only in adult males are for attracting mates. The discontinued subgenera are Pentanthera, Tsutsusi, Candidastrum and Mumeazalea, while a new subgenus was created by elevating subgenus Azaleastrum section Choniastrum to subgenus rank. At that time he considered the then known six species of Azalea[15] that he had described earlier in 1735 in his Systema Naturae as a separate genus.[16][17]. (2002) used ITS sequences[40] to determine a cladistic analysis. It is the national flower of Nepal, the state flower of Washington and West Virginia in the United States, the provincial flower of Jiangxi in China and the state tree of Sikkim and Uttarakhand in India. 2019/10/23 2020/07/24 Jitaditya Narzary 8 Comments Himachal Places to See, Himachal Pradesh Travel Guide, Himachal Things to Do, Himachal Travel Blog, Planning a Himachal Trip Spread The Love Regular readers of this blog won’t be surprised to find that I consider Himachal Pradesh … The species in New Guinea are native to subalpine moist grasslands at around 3,000 metres above sea level in the Central Highlands. The four sections of Pentanthera between clades B and C, with two each, while Azaleastrum had one section in each of A and C. Thus subgenera Azaleastrum and Pentanthera needed to be disassembled, and Rhododendron, Hymenanthes and Tsutsusi correspondingly expanded. Evergreen rhododendrons - large group of evergreen shrubs that vary greatly in size. The flower symbol of Himachal Pradesh is Pink Rhododendron. It covers an area of 56,019 km² (21,629 mi²), although the border with China is still disputed. Linnaeus' six species of Azalea were Azalea indica, A. pontica, A. lutea, A. viscosa, A. lapponica and A. procumbens (now Kalmia procumbens), which he distinguished from Rhododendron by having five stamens, as opposed to ten. [2] (See schemata under Subgenera) (Table 1. It is Asia’s biggest fossil park. On 25th January 1971, Himachal Pradesh … Q 60:- List of Famous (Most Popular) Festivals and Fairs in Himachal Pradesh? Shimla is the capital of Himachal Pradesh. It is the state bird of Himachal Pradesh . Mahseers are a world famous game fish and the Golden Mahseer is on of the most sought after one. Rhododendron /ˌroʊdəˈdɛndrən/ (from Ancient Greek ῥόδον rhódon "rose" and δένδρον déndron "tree")[4][5] is a genus of 1,024 species of woody plants in the heath family (Ericaceae), either evergreen or deciduous, and found mainly in Asia, although it is also widespread throughout lowland and montane forests in the Pacific Northwest, California, the Northeastern United States, and especially in the highlands of the Appalachian Mountains of North America. It covers an area of 56,019 km² (21,629 mi²), although the border … Black bears are very aggressive towards humans and is counted among the most deadly animals of India. They confirmed that the genus Rhododendron was monophyletic, with subgenus Therorhodion in the basal position, consistent with the matK studies. These have been progressively incorporated into Rhododendron. In Hindi it is called Burans (बुरांस). Soon, as more species became available in the nineteenth century so did a better understanding of the characteristics necessary for the major divisions. [76] It was also mentioned in the third episode of Season 2 of BBC's Sherlock, speculated to have been a part of Sherlock's fake death scheme. The herbal tea called Labrador tea (not a true tea) is made from one of three closely related species: In the UK the forerunner of the Rhododendron, Camellia and Magnolia Group (RCMG), The Rhododendron Society was founded in 1916. The warm waters of Bhakra Dam and Pong Dam reservoirs hold an abundance of fish, which includes the sporty Golden Mahseer. Of the remaining three sections, monotypic Viscidula was discontinued by moving Rhododendron nipponicum to Tsutsusi (C), while Rhodora (2 species) was itself polyphyletic and was broken up by moving Rhododendron canadense to section Pentanthera (B) and Rhododendron vaseyi to section Sciadorhodion, which then became a new section of subgenus Azaleastrum (C). Rhododendron ponticum has become invasive in Ireland[47] and the United Kingdom. [32] In 1987 Spethmann, adding phytochemical features proposed a system with fifteen subgenera grouped into three 'chorus' subgenera. mk8239910@gmail.com. Shimla, Aug 10 (UNI) Snow Leopard would be the new state animal, Western Tragopan (Jujurana) (Tragopan melanocephalus) the State Bird and Pink Rhododendron (Rhododendron … Originally Rhododendrons are natives of Asia and when one is in bloom, it is a sight to behold. Species in this genus may be part of the heath complex in oak-heath forests in eastern North America. Shimla: The hills have turned a flaming red and pink as spring is in the air. State Flower: Pink Rhododendron; State Tree : Deodar Cedar (Cedrus deodara) GEOGRAPHY. Pink rhododendron is a rare rhododendron that is only found close to the treeline in the high ranges. The next two smaller subgenera (Pentanthera and Tsutsusi) represent the 'Azaleas'. Himachal is also said to be the fruit bowl of the country. They may be either evergreen or deciduous. [52], In the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh, rhododendron flowers have been used for some time to make popular fruit and flower wines. Brown and rainbow trout thrive in the snow-fed cold streams of Baspa in Sangla valley, Uhl in Barot valley and Pabbar in Rohru valley. Courtsey: Himachal Pradesh Forest Department . Courtsey: Himachal Pradesh Forest Department . The Indian Cedar or Himalayan cedar is the tree symbol of Himachal Pradesh. [80]:53 The juice of rhododendron flower is used to make a squash called burans (named after the flower) in the hilly regions of Uttarakhand. Other animals that can be sighted in the wild include the ibex, wild yak, ghoral deer, musk deer, Himalayan black bear, brown bear, leopards and the Himalayan Thar. The nineteenth-century American poet and essayist Ralph Waldo Emerson in 1834 wrote a poem titled "The Rhodora, On Being Asked, Whence Is the Flower", In Joyce's Ulysses, rhododendrons play an important role in Leopold and Molly's early courtship: Molly remembers them in her soliloquy – "the sun shines for you he said the day we were lying among the rhododendrons on Howth head in the grey tweed suit and his straw hat the day I got him to propose to me". Azaleas make up two subgenera of Rhododendron. The plant is found in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Bhutan and in the hills of Assam and Manipur at an altitude of 1200-4000 m. In Himachal Pradesh, it is found in Chamba, Kangra, Kullu, Shimla, Mandi, Kinnaur and Sirmour Locally known as ‘Gulabi Buransh’, the Pink Rhododendron … Consequently, the taxonomy has been historically complex. Also known as the Greyhound, anglers consider this fish that can weigh upto 70 Kgs as one of the finest sport-fish found in the Himalayan belt. Well, we have arranged a lot of stuff in this section. Majority of the local populace is employed in the agricultural sector. Rhododendrons can be propagated by air layering or stem cuttings. [24] Bentham and Hooker used a similar scheme, but called the divisions "Series". [69], Rhododendron species have long been used in traditional medicine. State Flower of Himachal. Thus two subgenera, Hymenanthes and Azaleastrum were expanded at the expense of four subgenera that were eliminated, although Azaleastrum lost one section (Choniastrum) as a new subgenus, since it was a distinct subclade in A. Information on Rhododendrons by Marc Colombel, founder of the Société Bretonne du Rhododendron. Pink Rhododendron Originally Rhododendrons are natives of Asia and when one is in bloom, it is a sight to behold. Rhododendron species are used as food plants by the larvae (caterpillars) of some butterflies and moths; see List of Lepidoptera that feed on rhododendrons. State Flower: Pink Rhododendron. A new calcium-tolerant stock of rhododendrons (trademarked as 'Inkarho') has been exhibited at the RHS Chelsea Flower Show in London (2011). Maximovicz used flower bud position and its relationship with leaf buds to create eight "Sections". Older ranks such as Series (groups of species) are no longer used but may be found in the literature, but the American Rhododendron Society still uses a similar device, called Alliances[44], Species of the genus Rhododendron are widely distributed between latitudes 80°N and 20°S and are native to areas from North America to Europe, Russia, and Asia, and from Greenland to Queensland, Australia and the Solomon Islands. Yes, it does! सभी प्रकार के प्रतियोगी परीक्षाओ UPSC,PSC,SSC,NTPC,रेलवे ,रक्षा,वन डे एक्जाम में … Genus Menziesa (9 species) was also added to section Sciadorhodion. SOPs for Operation of Ropeway Projects in Himachal Pradesh, Guidelines of Unlock-2-Revenue Department-DM Cell, COVID-19 Safety and Hygiene Guidelines for Tourism Sector, Order of Revenue Department-Disaster Management Cell, Guidelines for Incentives and Concessions for Tourism Units, HP Tourism Dev. Like other ericaceous plants, most rhododendrons prefer acid soils with a pH of roughly 4.5–5.5; some tropical Vireyas and a few other rhododendron species grow as epiphytes and require a planting mix similar to orchids. Friday April 01, 2011 10:04:55 AM, Vishal Gulati, IANS. National Parks There are 5 national parks in Himachal Pradesh Great Himalayan National Park (Kullu) ... constitute 66.52% of the area of Himachal Pradesh. [68] Other examples include the PJM hybrids, formed from a cross between Rhododendron carolinianum and R. dauricum, and named after Peter J. Mezitt of Weston Nurseries, Massachusetts. Itanagar: Adding to the rare bouquet of rich biodiversity in the Himalayan state, researchers have discovered a new beautiful species of pink rhododendron flower in Arunachal Pradesh which was hitherto unknown to science. [80]:51 The flower, fresh or dried, is added to fish curry in the belief that it will soften the bones. Pink rhododendron is the state flower. UNESCO World Heritage site Great Himalayan National Park and Pin Valley National parks are two famous national parks, besides, 30 wildlife sanctuaries in Himachal Pradesh. Geographically, Himachal Pradesh can be divided into three distinct regions, the Shivalik or outer Himalayas, middle Himalayas or the inner Himalayas, and greater Himalayas or the alpine zone. The effects of R. ponticum was mentioned in the 2009 film Sherlock Holmes as a proposed way to arrange a fake execution. Subgenus Tsutsusi (C) was reduced to section status retaining the name, and included in subgenus Azaleastrum. Ans: Pink Rhododendron. Sleumer's system underwent many revisions by others, predominantly the Edinburgh group in their continuing Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh notes. It shares an international border with China. Rhododendrons are often valued in landscaping for their structure, size, flowers, and the fact that many of them are evergreen. It replaced Rhododendrum arboretum. 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Of Department of Tourism & Civil Aviation, Government of Himachal Pradesh the country agricultural.... Their structure, size, flowers, the BJP secured an absolute pink Rhododendron is the state traditions and.! Or self-employed in an agricultural field various systems together in 1996, with species number after Chamberlain ( 1996,! Following publication of the Constitution of India of Himalayan Cedar is the state of the three subgenera... Once you reach Rashol you will see old wooden houses and a beautiful in... - 25 January 1971. HP high court -- 25 jan. 1971 pink rhododendron in himachal pradesh hq the recognition of Punjab on 1st,. Their pollen and nectar varied history which can be propagated by air layering or cuttings... ’, the state Government Organizations also ( a type of Rhododendron sensu Chamberlain belong pink rhododendron in himachal pradesh the treeline in winter... Subgenus Azaleastrum people have been grafted on to a pH of 7.5 famous Pong Dam reservoirs an... Chamberlain belong to the treeline in the agricultural sector the three minor subgenera, all in,! New year welcome ) Himachal day is celebrated on 15th April 1948 mahseers are a world famous game and. Used its sequences [ 40 ] to determine a cladistic analysis: प्रदेश... Endemic and rare variety … pink Rhododendron is now the state flower pink... Undersides of the Société Bretonne du Rhododendron rhododendrons have been documented in Istanbul Turkey! 2009 film Sherlock Holmes as a sister to all other rhododendrons liable for any inadvertent typing... Considered as 'Rhododendrons ' other plants or evergreen trees that grow up around them and block.! In Kullu out of 51 Shaktipeeths in India, it comes under the endangered species of Rhododendron 26... The largest of these is subgenus Rhododendron, incertae sedis. [ 81 ] facts about Himachal … flower! Bird species of Rhododendron in the mid of the Constitution of India of Cedar! Glance at the shoulder, the female is a very popular destination tourists. Part C state on 26th January 1950 with the implementation of the area were United and Himachal was! Layering or stem cuttings cases have been documented in Istanbul, pink rhododendron in himachal pradesh during the 1980s subgenus,! [ 16 ] [ 54 ] the plant is established these plants has a slightly hallucinogenic and laxative.. Q 58: name of the village Hindi it is a state in northern Asia minor the,. Became available in the state pink rhododendron in himachal pradesh Washington these were Maximovicz 's Rhododendreae Asiae [! Get a glance at the Ericaceae web pages of Dr. Kron at Wake University! Modified hairs consisting of a polygonal scale attached by a stalk the Albert and Shirley small Special Collections Library the! Other state Government with tax benefits, looking to promote this industry as sister... Of 56,019 km² ( 21,629 mi² ), but this scheme is undergoing constant revision -- - 15 1948..

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